public final class MailUtil extends java.lang.Object
Contains static methods for sending e-mails to recipients using JNDI-supplied JavaMail Sessions supplied by a web container (preferred) or configured via
jspwiki.properties; both methods are described below. Because most e-mail servers require authentication, for security reasons implementors are strongly encouraged to use container-managed JavaMail Sessions so that passwords are not exposed in
To enable e-mail functions within JSPWiki, administrators must do three things: ensure that the required JavaMail JARs are on the runtime classpath, configure JavaMail appropriately, and (recommdended) configure the JNDI JavaMail session factory.JavaMail runtime JARs
The first step is easy: JSPWiki bundles recent versions of the required JavaMailJavaMail configuration
activation.jarinto the JSPWiki WAR file; so, out of the box this is already taken care of. However, when using JNDI-supplied Session factories, these should be moved, not copied, to a classpath location where the JARs can be shared by both the JSPWiki webapp and the container. For example, Tomcat 5 provides the directory
$CATALINA_HOME/common/libfor storage of shared JARs; move
activation.jarthere instead of keeping them in
Regardless of the method used for supplying JavaMail sessions (JNDI container-managed or via
jspwiki.properties, JavaMail needs certain properties set in order to work correctly. Configurable properties are these:
Property Default Definition
The JNDI name of the JavaMail session factory
The SMTP mail server from which messages will be sent.
The port number of the SMTP mail service.
(not set) The user name of the sender. If this value is supplied, the JavaMail session will attempt to authenticate to the mail server before sending the message. If not supplied, JavaMail will attempt to send the message without authenticating (i.e., it will use the server as an open relay). In real-world scenarios, you should set this value.
(not set) The password of the sender. In real-world scenarios, you should set this value.
The e-mail address of the sender.
Socket I/O timeout value, in milliseconds. The default is 5 seconds.
Socket connection timeout value, in milliseconds. The default is 5 seconds.
If true, enables the use of the STARTTLS command (if supported by the server) to switch the connection to a TLS-protected connection before issuing any login commands. Note that an appropriate trust store must configured so that the client will trust the server's certificate. By default, the JRE trust store contains root CAs for most public certificate authorities.
*These defaults apply only if the stand-alone Session factory is used (that is, these values are obtained fromContainer JNDI Session factory configuration
jspwiki.properties). If using a container-managed JNDI Session factory, the container will likely supply its own default values, and you should probably override them (see the next section).
You are strongly encouraged to use a container-managed JNDI factory for JavaMail sessions, rather than configuring JavaMail through
jspwiki.properties. To do this, you need to two things: uncomment the
/WEB-INF/web.xmlthat enables container-managed JavaMail, and configure your container's JavaMail resource factory. The
web.xmlpart is easy: just uncomment the section that looks like this:
<resource-ref> <description>Resource reference to a container-managed JNDI JavaMail factory for sending e-mails.</description> <res-ref-name>mail/Session</res-ref-name> <res-type>javax.mail.Session</res-type> <res-auth>Container</res-auth> </resource-ref>
To configure your container's resource factory, follow the directions supplied by your container's documentation. For example, the Tomcat 5.5 docs state that you need a properly configured
<Resource>element inside the JSPWiki webapp's
<Context>declaration. Here's an example shows how to do it:
<Context ...> ... <Resource name="mail/Session" auth="Container" type="javax.mail.Session" mail.smtp.host="127.0.0.1"/> mail.smtp.port="25"/> mail.smtp.account="your-account-name"/> mail.smtp.password="your-password"/> mail.from="Snoop Dogg <email@example.com>"/> mail.smtp.timeout="5000"/> mail.smtp.connectiontimeout="5000"/> mail.smtp.starttls.enable="true"/> ... </Context>
Note that with Tomcat (and most other application containers) you can also declare the JavaMail JNDI factory as a global resource, shared by all applications, instead of as a local JSPWiki resource as we have done here. For example, the following entry in
$CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xmlcreates a global resource:
<GlobalNamingResources> <Resource name="mail/Session" auth="Container" type="javax.mail.Session" ... mail.smtp.starttls.enable="true"/> </GlobalNamingResources>
This approach — creating a global JNDI resource — yields somewhat decreased deployment complexity because the JSPWiki webapp no longer needs its own JavaMail resource declaration. However, it is slightly less secure because it means that all other applications can now obtain a JavaMail session if they want to. In many cases, this is what you want.
NOTE: Versions of Tomcat 5.5 later than 5.5.17, and up to and including 5.5.23 have a b0rked version of
$CATALINA_HOME/common/lib/naming-factory.jarthat prevents usage of JNDI. To avoid this problem, you should patch your 5.5.23 version of
naming-factory.jarwith the one from 5.5.17. This is a known issue and the bug report (#40668) is here.
Nested Class Summary
Nested Classes Modifier and Type Class Description
protected static class
Authenticatorsubclass that authenticates a user to an SMTP server.
All Methods Static Methods Concrete Methods Modifier and Type Method Description
sendMessage(java.util.Properties props, java.lang.String to, java.lang.String subject, java.lang.String content)Sends an e-mail to a specified receiver using a JavaMail Session supplied by a JNDI mail session factory (preferred) or a locally initialized session based on properties in
public static void sendMessage(java.util.Properties props, java.lang.String to, java.lang.String subject, java.lang.String content) throws javax.mail.internet.AddressException, javax.mail.MessagingException
Sends an e-mail to a specified receiver using a JavaMail Session supplied by a JNDI mail session factory (preferred) or a locally initialized session based on properties in
jspwiki.properties. See the top-level JavaDoc for this class for a description of required properties and their default values.
The e-mail address used for the
toparameter must be in RFC822 format, as described in the JavaDoc for
InternetAddressand more fully at http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/RFC/822/index.htm. In other words, e-mail addresses should look like this:
Snoop Dog <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Note that the first form allows a "friendly" user name to be supplied in addition to the actual e-mail address.
props- the properties that contain mail session properties
to- the receiver
subject- the subject line of the message
content- the contents of the mail message, as plain text
javax.mail.internet.AddressException- If the address is invalid
javax.mail.MessagingException- If the message cannot be sent.